This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.
The purpose of this study was to develop a valid multidimensional self-report measure of sleepiness. There were 554 subjects who completed the inventory. The structure of the Sleep-Wake Activity Inventory (SWAI) was derived from principal components analysis. The independent predictive strength of the factors was assessed by forward stepwise regression analysis with the average sleep latency on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) as the dependent variable. The scores on each of the factors were also compared by the level of sleepiness determined by the MSLT (pathological, diagnostic gray area, and normal). Factor analysis showed the existence of six factors on the SWAI (Excessive Daytime Sleepiness [EDS], Psychic Distress, Social Desirability, Energy Level, Ability to Relax and Nocturnal Sleep). The EDS factor was the best predictor of average MSLT. It was also able to differentiate pathological levels of sleepiness from both the diagnostic gray and normal levels of sleepiness. EDS factor scores were sensitive to changes in sleep physiology as improved scores followed normalization of sleep-disordered breathing. The SWAI was shown to be easy to complete, have a multidimensional structure, have a EDS factor useful in the prediction of average MSLT scores, be sensitive to differential levels of sleepiness, and change as a result of effective treatment.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Life effects of narcolepsy in 180 patients from North America, Asia and Europe compared to matched controls.J Can Neurol Sci. 1981; 8: 299-304
- The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research.Psychiatry Res. 1989; 28: 193-213
- Basics for polygraphic monitoring of sleep.in: Guilleminault C. Sleeping and Waking Disorders: Indications and Techniques. Addison-Wesley, Menlo Park, CA1982: 1-16
- The second decade.in: Guilleminault C. Sleeping and Waking Disorders: Indications and Techniques. Addison-Wesley, Menlo Park, CA1982: 99-125
- Sleep and daytime sleepiness in the elderly.J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1980; 13: 135-151
- Guidelines for the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT): A standard measure of sleepiness.Sleep. 1986; 9: 519-524
- A systematic method for clinical description and classification of personality variants.Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1987; 44: 573-588
- Sleep-wake disorders based on a polysomnographic diagnosis.JAMA. 1982; 247: 997-1003
- A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology.J Consult Psychol. 1960; 24: 1397-1403
- Cyclic variations in EEG during sleep and their relation to eye movements, body motility and dreaming.Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1957; 9: 673-690
- Automobile accidents involving patients with obstructive sleep apnea.Am Rev Respir Dis. 1988; 138: 337-340
- Evaluation of the effectiveness of uvulopalato-pharyngoplasty.Laryngoscope. 1985; 95: 70-74
- Sensitivity of the Stanford Sleepiness Scale to the effects of cumulative partial sleep deprivation and recovery over sleeping.Sleep. 1981; 4: 83-92
- Quantification of sleepiness: A new approach.Psychophysiology. 1973; 10: 431-436
- A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale.Sleep. 1991; 14: 540-545
- Reliability and factor analysis of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale.Sleep. 1992; 15: 376-381
- Recovery of alertness after CPAP in apnea.Chest. 1989; 96: 1364-1367
- Inverse relationship between defensiveness and lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorder.Am J Psychiatry. 1990; 147: 573-578
- Sleep habits and sleep disturbances in industrial workers in Israel: Main findings and some characteristics of workers complaining of excessive daytime sleepiness.Sleep. 1981; 4: 147-158
- A sleep questionnaire.in: Gulleminault C. Sleeping and Waking Disorders. Indications and Techniques. Addison-Wesley, Menlo Park, CA1982: 383-413
- REM sleep episodes during the Multiple Sleep Latency Test in narcoleptic patients.Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1979; 46: 479-481
- Rechtschaffen A. Kales A. A Manual of Standardized Terminology: Techniques and Scoring System for Sleep Stages of Human Subjects. UCLA, Brain Information Service/Brain Research Institute, Los Angeles1968
- Depressive psychopathology in male sleep apneics.J Clin Psychiatry. 1984; 45: 287-290
- Excessive daytime sleepiness in man: Multiple sleep latency measurement in narcoleptic and control subjects.Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1978; 45: 621-627
- Circadian variation of sleep tendency in elderly and young adult subjects.Sleep. 1982; 5: S82-S94
- A sleep-wake activity inventory to measure daytime sleepiness.Sleep Res. 1991; 20: 130
- The frequency of various sleep disorders in different age groups.Sleep Res. 1991; 20A: 383
- Sleepiness: Its measurement and determinants.Sleep. 1982; 5: S128-S134
- Daytime sleepiness and alertness.in: Kryger M. Roth T. Dement W. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. WB Saunders, Philadelphia1989: 14-23
- The International Classification of Sleep Disorders—Diagnostic and Coding Manual. American Sleep Disorders Association, Rochester, MN1990 (chair)
- Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales.J Pers Soc Psychol. 1988; 54: 1063-1070
- Effects of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty on the daytime sleepiness associated with sleep apnea syndrome.Bull Eur Physiopathol Resp. 1983; 19: 600-603
Received in revised form: August 19, 1993
Received: January 29, 1993
☆This work was supported by NIMH grant MH-00860, awarded to Dr. Leon Rosenthal.
© 1993 Published by Elsevier Inc.