Research Article| Volume 28, ISSUE 8, P705-720, October 15, 1990

Smooth pursuit eye movements of normal and schizophrenic subjects tracking an unpredictable target

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      An experimental paradigm employed by several workers in the field of schizophrenic eye movements has involved findingssequences of stimuli that induce saccadic smooth pursuit in the eye movements of normal individuals. It is hoped that the identification of such stimuli will lead to clues concerning the etiology or nature of eye tracking dysfunction in schizophrenia. In this study, the pursuit eye movements of normal and schizophrenic subjects tracking an unpredictable target (composed of summed sine waves) were examined. Eye tracking performance was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively using percent root-mean-square (%RMS) error and pursuit gain scores. Schizophrenics are capable of tracking an unpredictable target. This finding has implications for our understanding of schizophrenic information processing during visual tracking.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Allen J.S.
        • Matsunaga K.
        • Nakamura T.
        • et al.
        Schizophrenia, eye movements, and biocultural heterogeneity.
        Hum Biol. 1990; (in press).
        • Bahill A.T.
        • McDonald J.D.
        Smooth pursuit eye movements in response to predictable target motions.
        Vision Res. 1993; 23: 1573-1583
        • Bahill A.T.
        • Iandolo M.J.
        • Troost B.T.
        Smooth pursuit eye movements in response to unpredictable target waveforms.
        Vision Res. 1980; 20: 923-931
        • Braff D.L.
        Impaired speed of information processing in nonmedicated schizotypal patients.
        Schizophr Bull. 1981; 7: 499-508
        • Braff D.
        • Saccuzzo D.P.
        The time course of information-processing deficits in schizophrenia.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1985; 142: 170-174
        • Brezinova V.
        • Kendell R.E.
        Smooth pursuit eye movements of schizophrenics and normal people under stress.
        Br J Psychiatry. 1977; 130: 59-63
        • Holzman P.S.
        Recent studies of psychophysiology in schizophrenia.
        Schizophr Bull. 1987; 13: 49-76
        • Holzman P.S.
        • Levy D.L.
        • Proctor L.R.
        Smooth pursuit eye movements, attention, and schizophrenia.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1976; 33: 1415-1420
        • Kaufman S.R.
        • Abel L.A.
        The effects of distraction on smooth pursuit in normal subjects.
        Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh). 1986; 102: 57-64
        • Kowler E.
        • Martins A.J.
        • Pavel M.
        The effect of expectations on slow oculomotor control. IV. Anticipatory smooth eye movements depend on prior target motions.
        Vision Res. 1984; 24: 197-210
        • Levin S.
        Frontal lobe dysfunctions in schizophrenia. I. Eye movement impairments.
        J Psychiatry Res. 1984; 18: 27-55
        • Levin S.
        • Jones A.
        • Stark L.
        • Merrin E.L.
        • Holzman P.S.
        Saccadic eye movements of schizophrenic patients measured by reflected light technique.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1982; 17: 1277-1287
        • Levin S.
        • Luebke A.
        • Zee D.S.
        • Hain T.C.
        • Robinson D.A.
        • Holzman P.S.
        Smooth pursuit eye movements in schizophrenics: Quantitative measurements with the search-coil technique.
        J Psychiatry Res. 1988; 22: 195-206
        • Lipton R.B.
        • Frost L.A.
        • Holzman P.S.
        Smooth pursuit eye movements, schizophrenia, and distraction.
        Percept Motor Skills. 1980; 50: 159-167
        • Mather J.
        Saccadic eye movements to seen and unseen targets: Oculomotor errors in normal subjects resembling those of schizophrenics.
        J Psychiatr Res. 1986.; 20: 1-8
        • Mather J.A.
        • Putchat C.
        Motor control of schizophrenics. I. Oculomotor control of schizophrenics: A deficit in sensory processing, not strictly in motor control.
        J Psychiatry Res. 1983; 17: 343-360
        • Meyer C.H.
        • Lasker A.G.
        • Robinson D.A.
        The upper limit of human smooth pursuit velocity.
        Vision Res. 1985; 25: 561-563
        • Michael J.A.
        • Jones G.M.
        Dependence of visual tracking capability upon stimulus predictability.
        Vision Res. 1966; 6: 707-716
        • Miller S.
        • Saccuzzo D.
        • Braff D.
        Information processing deficits in remitted schizophrenics.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1979; 88: 446-449
        • Norris H.
        The time course of barbiturate action in man investigated by measurement of smooth tracking eye movement.
        Br J Pharmacol Chemother. 1968; 33: 117-128
        • Oppenheim A.V.
        • Wilsby A.S.
        • Young I.T.
        Signals and Systems.
        Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ1983
        • Shagass C.
        • Roemer R.A.
        • Amadeo M.
        Eye-tracking performance and engagement of attention.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1976; 33: 121-125
        • Sharpe J.A.
        • Sylvester T.O.
        Effect of aging on horizontal smooth pursuit.
        Invest Ophthalmol Visual Sci. 1978; 17: 465-468
        • Stark L.
        The control system for versional eye movements.
        in: Bach-y-Rita P. Collins C.C. The Control of Eye Movements. Academic, New York1971: 363-428
        • Stark L.
        Abnormal patterns of normal eye movements in schizophrenia.
        Schizophr Bull. 1983; 9: 55-72
        • Stark L.
        • Vossius G.
        • Young L.R.
        Predictive control of eye tracking movements.
        IRE Trans Prof Group Hum Fac Electron. 1962; 3: 52-57
        • Yee R.D.
        • Beloh R.W.
        • Marder S.R.
        • Levy D.L.
        • Sakala S.M.
        • Honrubia V.
        Eye movements in schizophrenia.
        Invest Ophthalmol Visual Sci. 1987; 28: 366-374