This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.
Eye movements in 10 acute schizophrenics, 50 chronic schizophrenics, 20 remitted schizophrenics, 25 methamphetamine psychotics, 21 temporal lobe epileptics with left-sided spike focus (l-focus), 12 temporal lobe epileptics with right-sided spike focus (r-focus), and 50 normal controls were examined with an eye mark recorder while they viewed geometric figures. The eye movements while viewing an original “S”-shaped figure for 15 sec were analyzed. Each schizophrenic group and methamphetamine psychotics had significantly less eye fixations than the normal controls and temporal lobe epileptics (r-focus and l-focus). The chronic schizophrenics had significantly shorter mean eye scanning length (MESL) than the other six groups. Each subject was then shown two other figures slightly different from the original and was requested to compare them with the original. After comparing them, the subjects were asked the question, “Are there any other differences?” The 5-sec eye movements during the response to this question were scored using the Responsive Search Score (RSS). The schizophrenic groups had a significantly lower RSS than the nonschizophrenic patient groups and the normal controls. In the chronic schizophrenics, there was a significant negative correlation between the RSS and negative symptoms. These results suggest that the MESL can be an indicator of a chronic process of schizophrenia, and that lowering of the RSS may be nosologically specific indicator for schizophrenia.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- American Psychiatric Association, Washington1987 (revised) DSM-III-R Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Third Ed.
- Visual perception process in chronic schizophrenia and endogenous depression.in: Obiols J. Ballus C. Gonzalez Monclus E. Pujol J. Biological Psychiatry Today. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, New York, Oxford1979: 1472-1477
- Recognition versus recall in schizophrenia.Can J Psychol. 1968; 22: 18-25
- An experimental study of the ocular reactions of the insane from photographic records.Brain. 1908; 31: 451-489
- Psychosis and temporal lobe epilepsy.Epilepsy. 1969; 10: 363-395
- Visuomotor performance of schizophrenic patients and normal controls in a picture-viewing task.Biol Psychiatry. 1987; 22: 1227-1237
- Vulnerability to schizophrenia-prediction of adult schizophrenia using childhood information.Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1984; 41: 1050-1056
- Abnormal pursuit eye movement in schizophrenia. Evidence for a genetic indicator.Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1977; 34: 802-805
- Eye-tracking patterns in schizophrenia.Science. 1973; 181: 179-181
- Eye movement in depressed patients compared with schizophrenics and normal controls (abstract).in: 8th Annual Meeting of Japan Biological Psychiatry. 1986: 56
- Studies on schizophrenia and methamphetamine psychosis using an eye mark recorder.Adv Neurol Sci. 1985; 29: 939-949
- Visual perception process in amphetamine psychosis and schizophrenia.Psychopharmacology Bull. 1986; 22: 768-773
- Eye movements in remitting and non-remitting schizophrenia.Clin Neuropharmacol. 1986; 4 (Suppl 9): 277-279
- Eye movements in schizophrenia.in: What is Schizophrenia. II. Tokyo University Publisher, Tokyo1987: 66-81
- Schizophrenia research using an eye mark recorder.in: Shimazono Y. Inanaga K. What is Schizophrenia?: Biological Pathogenesis and Pathological State of Schizophrenia. Tokyo University Publisher, Tokyo1984: 23-47
- Limited eye movement patterns in chronic schizophrenic patients.Psychiatry Research. 1989; 28: 307-314
- Development of the “Uchida-Kraepelin Psychodiagnostic Test” in Japan.Psychologia. 1957; 1: 104-109
- A study of eye movement in patients with chronic schizophrenia and in their relatives, using an eye-mark recorder.Psychiatria et Neurologia Japonica. 1979; 81: 523-558
- Eye movements during perception of pictures in chronic schizophrenia.Folia Psychiatr Neurol Jpn. 1972; 26: 189-199
- Visual perception process in schizophrenics and their relatives.Clin Psychiatry. 1977; 19: 387-397
- Eye movements in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy—comparison with schizophrenics and normal controls.Jpn J Psychiatry Neurol (Tokyo). 1988; 42: 632-634
- Cognitive and reality principles and implications of cognitive psychology.W.H. Freeman and Co, San Francisco and London1976
- Peripheral vision, refractoriness and eye movements in fast oral reading.Br J Psychol. 1962; 53: 409-419
- Eye-tracking pergormance in psychiatric patients.Biol Psychiatry. 1974; 9: 245-260
- Eye movements of chronic schizophrenia during wakefulness.in: Mitsuda H. Fukuda T. Biological Mechanisms of Schizophrenia and Schizophrenia-like Psychoses. Igaku Shoin Ltd, Tokyo1974: 69-76
- Clinical course of schizophrenic patients and Uchida-Kraepelin psychodiagnostic test.J Kanagawa Psychiatry. 1977; 28: 28-31
- The Methamphetamine Psychosis.Igaku Shoin Ltd, Tokyo1956
Received in revised form: July 17, 1989
Received: January 13, 1989
☆This study was supported in part by Grant No. 86–0707 from National Center for Nervous, Mental and Muscular Disorders (NCNMMD) of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan.
© 1990 Published by Elsevier Inc.