Advertisement
Research Article| Volume 22, ISSUE 11, P1349-1356, November 1987

Glutathione peroxidase and CT scan abnormalities in schizophrenia

  • Trent D. Buckman
    Correspondence
    Address reprint requests to Dr. T. D. Buckman, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Science, UCLA School of Medicine, 760 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90024
    Affiliations
    Departments of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Science, and Biological Chemistry, UCLA School of Medicine. Los AngelesUSA

    Psychiatry Services, Sepulveda Veterans Administration Medical Center, Sepulveda, CA. USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Arthur S. Kling
    Affiliations
    Departments of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Science, and Biological Chemistry, UCLA School of Medicine. Los AngelesUSA

    Psychiatry Services, Sepulveda Veterans Administration Medical Center, Sepulveda, CA. USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Samuel Eiduson
    Affiliations
    Departments of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Science, and Biological Chemistry, UCLA School of Medicine. Los AngelesUSA

    Psychiatry Services, Sepulveda Veterans Administration Medical Center, Sepulveda, CA. USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Mary S. Sutphin
    Affiliations
    Departments of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Science, and Biological Chemistry, UCLA School of Medicine. Los AngelesUSA

    Psychiatry Services, Sepulveda Veterans Administration Medical Center, Sepulveda, CA. USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Alan Steinberg
    Affiliations
    Departments of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Science, and Biological Chemistry, UCLA School of Medicine. Los AngelesUSA

    Psychiatry Services, Sepulveda Veterans Administration Medical Center, Sepulveda, CA. USA
    Search for articles by this author
      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.

      Abstract

      The search for morphological clues to the etiology of schizophrenia has led to widespread application of computed tomography (CT) scans in the examination of patients. These investigations have resulted in numerous reports over the past several years of brain atrophy and increased ventricle-brain ratios (VBR), suggestive of neuronal tissue damage, associated with the disorder. Altered activity of cellular antioxidant systems have been implicated in the neuronal cell loss that is associated with degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), but this phenomenon has not been investigated with respect to functional disorders like schizophrenia. A search for such a relationship in schizophrenics with evidence of brain atrophy has been initiated by measuring the activity of the important antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in blood samples from a population of chronic schizophrenics and age- and sex-matched nonschizophrenic mental patients as controls. A strong negative correlation has been found between GPx activity in both isolated platelets and erythrocytes and CT scan measures of brain atrophy and VBR in the schizophrenics, but not in the control population, which exhibited comparable CT scan abnormalities. These observations suggest a unique relationship of GPx to the mechanism of tissue damage in the schizophrenics.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Alexopoulos GS
        • Lieberman KW
        • Young RC
        Platelet MAO activity in primary degenerative dementia.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1984; 141: 97-99
        • Ambani LM
        • Van Woert MH
        • Murphy S
        Brain peroxidase and catalase in Parkinson disease.
        Arch Neurol. 1975; 32: 114-118
        • Andreasen NC
        Ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia; Definition and prevalence.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1982; 139: 292-296
        • Andreasen NC
        Negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1982; 39: 784-788
        • Capel ID
        • Willenbrock SJ
        • Jenner M
        • Williams DC
        The effect of ethanol ingestion on the erythrocyte antioxidant defense systems of rats.
        Biochem Pharmacol. 1980; 29: 1737-1739
        • Clausen J
        Demential syndromes and the lipid metabolism.
        Acta Neurol Scand. 1984; 70: 345-355
        • Corash L
        Platelet heterogeneity: Relevance to the use of platelets to study psychiatric disorders.
        Schizophren Bull. 1980; 6: 254-258
        • Dahlstrom GS
        • Welch GS
        • Dahlstrom LG
        MMPI Handbook. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis1972
        • Endicott J
        • Spitzer RL
        A diagnostic interview.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1978; 35: 837-844
        • Frischer H
        • Chu LK
        • Ahmad T
        • Justice P
        • Smith GF
        Superoxidase dismutase and glutathione peroxidase abnormalities in erythrocytes and lymphoid cells in Downe's syndrome.
        Prog Clin Biol Res. 1981; 55: 269-289
        • Gaunt GL
        • DeDuve C
        Subcellular distribution of D-amino acid oxidase and catalase in rat brain.
        J Neurochem. 1976; 26: 749-759
        • Hoekstra WG
        Biochemical role of selenium.
        in: Hoekstra WG Suttie JW Ganther HE Mertz W Trace Element Metabolism in Animals—2. University Park Press, Baltimore1974: 61-77
        • Hothersall JS
        • Greenbaum AL
        • McLean P
        The functional significance of the pentose phosphate pathway in synaptosomes: Protection against peroxidative damage by catecholamines and oxidants.
        J Neurochem. 1982; 39: 1325-1332
        • Igarashi T
        • Satoh T
        • Ono S
        • Iwashita K
        • Hosokawa M
        • Ueno K
        • Kitagawa H
        Effect of steroidal sex hormones on the sex-related differences in the hepatic activities of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione perioxidase in rats.
        Res Chem Pathol Pharamcol. 1984; 45: 225-232
        • Isaacs JT
        • Binkley F
        Cyclic AMP-dependent control of the rat hepatic glutathione disulfidesulfhydryl ratio.
        Biochim Biophys Acta. 1977; 498: 29-38
        • Jensen GE
        • Clausen J
        Leucocyte glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium level in Batten's disease.
        Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1983; 43: 187-196
        • Jensen GE
        • Clausen J
        • Melchior JC
        • Konat G
        Clinical, social and biochemical studies on Batten's Syndrome, alias Spielmeyer-Vogt or Stengels Syndrome.
        Eur Neurol. 1977; 15: 203-447
        • Kling AS
        • Kurtz N
        • Tachiki K
        • Orzeck A
        CT scans in sub-groups of chronic schizophrenics.
        J Psychiatr Res. 1983; 17: 375
        • Kling AS
        • Metter EJ
        • Riege WH
        • Kuhl DE
        Comparison of PET measurement of local brain glucose metabolism and CAT measurements of brain atrophy in chronic schizophrenics.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1986; 143: 175-180
        • Kulmacz RJ
        • Londs WE
        Requirements for hydroperoxide by the cyclooxygenase and peroxidase activities of prostaglandin H synthase.
        Prostaglandins. 1983; 25: 531-540
        • Lotscher RH
        • Winterhalter KH
        • Carafoli E
        • Richter C
        Hydroperoxides can modulate the redox state of pyridine nucleotides and the calcium balance in rat liver mitochondria.
        in: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 76. 1979: 4340-4344
        • Magaro PA
        • Abrams L
        • Cantrell P
        The Maine Scale of Paranoid and Non-paranoid Schizophrenia: Reliability and validity.
        J Consult Clin Psychol. 1981; 49: 438-447
        • Mavelli I
        • Rigo A
        • Federico R
        • Ciriolo MR
        • Rotillo G
        Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in developing rat brain.
        Biochem J. 1982; 204: 535-540
        • Mazzella GL
        • Sinforiani E
        • Savoldi F
        • Allegrini M
        • et al.
        Blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium in multiple sclerosis.
        Eur Neurol. 1983; 22: 442-446
        • Ogino N
        • Miyamoto T
        • Yamamoto S
        • Hayaishi O
        Prostaglandin endoperoxide E isomerase from bovine vesicular gland microsomes, a glutathione-requiring enzyme.
        J Biol Chem. 1977; 252: 890-895
        • Orrenius S
        • Jewell SA
        • Bellomo G
        • Hjordis T
        • Jones DP
        • Smith MT
        Regulation of calcium compartmentation in the hepatocyte—A critical role of glutathione.
        in: Larsson Functions of Glutathione: Biochemical, Physiological, Toxicological and Clinical Aspects. Raven Press, New York1983: 261-271
        • Overall JE
        • Gorham DR
        The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale.
        Psych Rep. 1962; 10: 799-812
        • Prohaska JR
        • Ganther HE
        Selenium and glutathione peroxidase in developing rat brain.
        J Neurochem. 1976; 27: 1379-1387
        • Robbins LN
        • Heizer JE
        • Croughan J
        • Ratcliff KS
        National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1981; 38: 381-389
        • Tachiki KH
        • Buckman TD
        • Eiduson S
        • Kling AS
        • Hullet J
        Phosphatidylserine inhibition of monoamine oxidase in platelets of schizophrenics.
        J Biol Psychiatry. 1986; 21: 59-68
        • Weinberger DR
        • Wyatt RJ
        Cerebral ventricular size: A biological marker for subtyping chronic schizophrenia.
        in: Usdin E Hanin I Biological Markers in Psychiatry and Neurology. Pergamon Press, New York1982: 505-512