Advertisement
Research Article| Volume 22, ISSUE 10, P1227-1237, October 1987

Visuomotor performance of schizophrenic patients and normal controls in a picture viewing task

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.

      Abstract

      The eye movements of 20 partially remitted schizophrenic outpatients (ICD-9) under neuroleptic maintenance medication and those of 20 normal controls were recorded using corneal reflection pupil-center measurement. The visuomotor performance during a 1-min picture viewing task was studied on the basis of several eye movement parameters. Clinical evaluation comprised self-ratings (Frankfort Complaint Questionnaire) and observer ratings (BPRS, CGI, GAS), as well as recording of current daily neuroleptic dosage (mg CPZ). The main results are that schizophrenics differ from normals in their correlational pattern of fixation- and movement-related parameters, reflecting two opposite viewing styles in schizophrenics: staring and extensive scanning. Both styles are differently related to clinical symptomatology. There was no strongly marked relationship with neuroleptic dosage.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Ando K
        • Kojima T
        • Morija H
        • Matsushima E
        • Harada N
        • Ando H
        • Isse K
        • Shiraishi H
        • Takahashi R
        • Shimazono Y
        Visual perception process in chronic schizophrenic patients.
        in: Abstracts, IVth World Congress of Biological Psychiatry, September 8–13, Philadelphia, PA1985
        • Beatty J
        Task-evoked pupillary responses, processing load, and the structure of processing resources.
        Psychol Bull. 1982; 91: 276-292
        • Boersma FJ
        • Muir W
        Eye Movements and Information Processing in Mentally Retarded Children.
        Rotterdam University Press, Rotterdam1975
        • Buchsbaum MS
        • DeLisi LE
        • Holcomb HH
        • Cappelletti J
        • King AC
        • Johnson J
        • Hazlett E
        • Dowling-Zimmerman S
        • Post RM
        • Morihisa J
        • Carpenter W
        • Cohen R
        • Pickar D
        • Weinberger DR
        • Margolin R
        • Kessler RM
        Anteroposterior gradients in cerebral glucose use in schizophrenia and affective disorders.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1984; 41: 1159-1165
        • Buswell GT
        How People Look at Pictures.
        University of Chicago Press, Chicago1935
        • Cegalis JA
        • Sweeney JA
        The effect of attention on smooth pursuit eye movements of schizophrenics.
        J Psychiatr Res. 1981; 16: 145-161
        • Cegalis JA
        • Leen D
        • Solomon EJ
        Attention in schizophrenia: An analysis of selectivity in the functional visual field.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1977; 86: 470-482
        • CIPS
        Internationale Skalen für Psychiatrie.
        Beltz Test Gesellschaft, Weinheim1981
        • Endicott J
        • Spitzer RL
        • Fleiss JL
        • Cohen J
        The Global Assessment Scale—A procedure for measing overall severity of psychiatry disturbance.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1976; 33: 766-771
        • Gaebel W
        • Ulrich G
        Visuomotor tracking performance in schizophrenia: Relationship with psychopathological subtyping.
        Neuropsychobiology. 1987; (in press).
        • Gaebel W
        • Ulrich G
        • Frick K
        Eye movement research with schizophrenic patients and normal controls using corneal reflection-pupil center measurement.
        Eur Arch Psychiatr Neurol Sci. 1986; 235: 243-254
        • Gardner RW
        • Long RI
        Control, defence and centration effect: A study of scanning behavior.
        Brit J Psychol. 1962; 53: 129-140
        • Gruzelier JH
        A critical assessment and integration of lateral asymmetries in schizophrenia.
        in: Myslobodsky M Hemisyndromes, Psychobiology, Neurology, Psychiatry. Academic Press, Orlando, FL1983
        • Gruzelier JH
        • Manchanda R
        The syndrome of schizophrenia: Relations between electrodermal response, lateral asymmetries and clinical ratings.
        Br J Psychiatry. 1982; 141: 488-495
        • Haley GA
        Relations among chronicity, diagnosis, premorbid adjustment, defensiveness and two measures of perceptual scanning.
        Percept Mot Skills. 1971; 33: 1163-1170
        • Holzman PS
        • Levy DL
        • Proctor LR
        The several qualities of attention in schizophrenia.
        in: Wynne LC Cromwell RL Matthysse S The Nature of Schizophrenia. John Wiley & Sons, New York1978: 295-306
        • Huber G
        Das Konzept substratnaher Basissymptome und seine Bedeutung für Theorie und Therapie schizophrener Erkrankungen.
        Nervenarzt. 1983; 54: 23-32
        • Just MA
        • Carpenter PA
        The role of eye-fixation research in cognitive psychology.
        Behav Res Methods Instrum. 1976; 8: 139-143
        • Kliegl R
        • Olson RK
        Reduction and calibration of eye monitor data.
        Behav Res Methods Instrum. 1981; 13: 107-111
        • Knight RA
        • Sims-Knight JE
        • Fetchers-Cassell M
        Overinclusion, broad scanning, and picture recognition in schizophrenics.
        J Clin Psychol. 1977; 33: 635-642
        • Lacey JA
        Somatic response patterning and stress: Some revisions of activation theory.
        in: Appley MH Trumball R Psychological Stress: Issues in Research. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York1967
        • Lipton RB
        • Levy DL
        • Holzman PS
        • Levin S
        Eye movement dysfunctions in psychiatric patients: A review.
        Schizophren Bull. 1983; 9: 13-32
        • Luborsky L
        • Blinder B
        Looking, recalling, and GSR as a function of defense.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1965; 70: 270-280
        • Luborsky L
        • Blinder B
        • Macworth N
        Eye fixation and recall of pictures as a function of GSR responsivity.
        Percept Mot Skills. 1963; 16: 469-483
        • Luria AR
        • Karpov BA
        • Yarbus AL
        Disturbances of active visual perception with lesions of the frontal lobes.
        Cortex. 1966; 2: 202-212
        • Meyer-Osterkamp KH
        • Cohen R
        Zur Grössenkonstanz bei Schizophrenen.
        Springer-Verlag, Berlin1973
        • Nuechterlein KH
        • Dawson ME
        Information processing and attentional functioning in the developmental course of schizophrenic disorders.
        Schizophren Bull. 1984; 10: 160-203
        • Overall JE
        The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale in psychopharmacological research.
        in: Guy W ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology. rev. ed. National Institute of Mental Health, Rockville, MD1976: 166-169
        • Overall JE
        • Gorham DR
        The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale.
        Psychol Rep. 1962; 10: 799-812
        • Piaget J
        The Psychology of Intelligence.
        Routledge & Kegan Paul, London1950
        • Pribram KH
        • McGuinness D
        Arousal, activation, and effort in the control of attention.
        Psychol Rev. 1975; 82: 116-149
        • Rayner K
        Eye movements in reading and information processing.
        Psychol Bull. 1978; 85: 618-660
        • Roberts JKA
        Brain structure and function in the schizophrenias: A neurobehavioral approach.
        Psychiatr J Univ Ottawa. 1983; 8: 67-80
        • Silverman J
        The problem of attention in research and theory in schizophrenia.
        Psychol Rev. 1964; 71: 352-379
        • Süllwold L
        Symptome schizophrener Erkrankungen.
        Springer-Verlag, Berlin1977
        • Togami H
        Effects on visual search performance of individual differences in fixation time and number of fixations.
        Ergonomics. 1984; 27: 789-799
        • Tucker DM
        • Williamson PA
        Asymmetric neural control systems in human self-regulation.
        Psychol Rev. 1984; 91: 185-215
        • Venables PH
        Input dysfunction in schizophrenia.
        in: Progress in Experimental Personality Research. vol 1. Academic Press, Orlando, FL1964: 1-47
        • Yarbus AL
        Eye Movements and Vision.
        Plenum Press, New York1967
        • Young LR
        • Sheena D
        Methods and designs—Survey of eye movement recording methods.
        Behav Res Ther. 1975; 7: 397-429