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Aberrant parenting and delayed offspring development in rats exposed to lithium

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      Abstract

      Natural lithium (Li) salts, including those used routinely in manic depressive illness, consist of two stable nonradioactive isotopes: lithium-7 (Li-7) (92.6%) and lithium-6 (Li-6) (7.4%). Female rats (3 months old) were treated with either Li-7 chloride or Li-6 chloride or were untreated prior to and during gestation and lactation. Birth weights were lower for Li-treated animals than for normal pups. Maternal behavior of all Li-treated mothers was altered. Li-7 mothers ignored their pups and nursed them infrequently. Li-6 mothers groomed and nursed their pups more often than normal mothers. All pups showed delays in development, especially in the maturation of depth perception. Although Li-6-treated dams were overprotective mothers, their offspring showed longer developmental delays than those of Li-7-treated offspring.
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